I. Image, The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers

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Isabella Image, The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers. The Will and Original Sin between Origen and Augustine, Oxford-New York, 2017.

Éditeur : Oxford University Press
256 pages
ISBN : 9780198806646
65 £


While he is more commonly known for his Trinitiarian works and theology, this study assesses mid-fourth-century bishop Hilary of Poitiers' view of the human condition. Isabella Image shows that the Commentary on Psalm 118 is more closely related to Origen's than previously thought. Image explains how his articulations of sin, body and soul, the Fall and the will all parallel or echo Origen's views in this work, but not necessarily in his Matthew Commentary. Hilary has a doctrine of original sin ('sins of our origin', peccata originis), which differs from the individual personal sins and for which we are individually accountable. He also articulates a fallen will which is in thrall to disobedience and needs God's help, something God always gives as long as we show the initiative. Hilary's idea of the fallen will may have developed in tangent with Origen's thought, which uses Stoic ideas on the process of human action in order to articulate the constraints on purely rational responses. Hilary in turn influences Augustine, who writes against the Pelagian bishop Julian of Eclanum citing Hilary as an example of an earlier writer with original sin. Since Hilary is known to have used Origen's work, and Augustine is known to have used Hilary's, Hilary appears to be one of the stepping-stones between these two great giants of the early church as the doctrines of original sin and the fallen will developed.
The Human Condition in Hilary of Poitiers not only identifies Hilary's anthropological thought, but also places it in the current of theological development of the fourth century. It considers reception of Origen in the mid-fourth century, before the criticisms of Epiphanius and the debates in the Egyptian monastic communities. This work also contributes to understanding of the tradition from which Augustine received his doctrine of original sin.

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Salluste, La Guerre de Jugurtha

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Salluste, La Guerre de Jugurtha, Paris, 2017.

Éditeur : Allia
144 pages
ISBN : 979-10-304-0578-1
10 €

Avant Spartacus et Vercingétorix, Jugurtha osa défier la grande Rome. Ambitieux, cruel et sans scrupules, fils d'esclave et neveu de Micipsa, roi de Numidie, le jeune Jugurtha est prêt à tout pour régner. Adopté par le souverain qui craint son ambition et espère ainsi l'amadouer et calmer ses ardeurs guerrières, Jugurtha hérite de sa part du butin aux côtés de ses frères d'adoption lors du décès de son oncle.
Jugurtha n'hésite pas à corrompre les dirigeants romains et parvient à mener à bien son plan : éliminer ses deux adversaires et tout rival qui croiserait sa route afin de s'emparer du trône. Mais c'est sans compter sur le peuple de Rome, qui se révolte bientôt contre les massacres en chaîne et les manœuvres de la noblesse romaine corrompue...


Source : Éditions Allia


D. Hoyos, Mastering the West. Rome and Carthage at War

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Dexter Hoyos, Mastering the West. Rome and Carthage at War, Oxford-New York, 2017.

Éditeur : Oxford University Press
Collection : Ancient Warfare and Civilization
360 pages
ISBN : 9780190663452
12,99 £


To say the Punic Wars (264-146 BC) were a turning-point in world history is a vast understatement. These vicious battles pitted two flourishing Mediterranean powers against one another, leaving one an unrivaled giant and the other a literal pile of ash. To later observers, a collision between these civilizations seemed inevitable and yet, to the Romans and Carthaginians at the time, war erupted seemingly out of nowhere and was expected to be a short and trivial skirmish.
Mastering the West offers a superlative narrative of all three wars as they are generally divided, while treating a full range of themes: the antagonists' military, naval, economic, and demographic resources and strategic opportunities; the political structures of both republics; questions of leadership and the contributions of leaders like Hannibal, Fabius the Delayer, Scipio Africanus, Masinissa, and Scipio Aemilianus; and the postwar impact of the conflicts on the participants and victims. Dexter Hoyos, a leading expert of the period, treats the two great powers evenly, without forgetting the important roles played by Syracuse, Macedon, and especially Numidia. Written with verve in a clear, accessible style, with a range of illustrations and newly-commissioned maps, Mastering the West is sure to restructure our understanding of this critical period in ancient history.

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L. Danckaert, The Development of Latin Clause Structure. A Study of the Extended Verb Phrase

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Lieven Danckaert, The Development of Latin Clause Structure. A Study of the Extended Verb Phrase, Oxford-New York, 2017.

Éditeur : Oxford University Press
Collection : Oxford Studies in Diachronic and Historical Linguistics
384 pages
ISBN : 9780198759522
70 £

This book examines Latin word order, and in particular the relative ordering of i) lexical verbs and direct objects (OV vs VO) and ii) auxiliaries and non-finite verbs (VAux vs AuxV). In Latin these elements can freely be ordered with respect to each other, whereas the present-day Romance languages only allow for the head-initial orders VO and AuxV. Lieven Danckaert offers a detailed, corpus-based description of these two word order alternations, focusing on their diachronic development in the period from c. 200 BC until 600 AD. The corpus data reveal that some received wisdom needs to be reconsidered: there is in fact no evidence for any major increase in productivity of the order VO during the eight centuries under investigation, and the order AuxV only becomes more frequent in clauses with a modal verb and an infinitive, not in clauses with a BE-auxiliary and a past participle. The book also explores a more fundamental question about Latin syntax, namely whether or not the language is configurational, in the sense that a phrase structure grammar (with 'higher-order constituents' such as verb phrases) is needed to describe and analyse Latin word order patterns. Four pieces of evidence are presented that suggest that Latin is indeed a fully configurational language, despite its high degree of word order flexibility. Specifically, it is shown that there is ample evidence for the existence of a verb phrase constituent. The book thus contributes to the ongoing debate regarding the status of configurationality as a language universal.

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D. Lenfant (éd.), Pseudo-Xénophon, Constitution des Athéniens, texte établi, traduit et commenté

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Dominique Lenfant (éd.), Pseudo-Xénophon, Constitution des Athéniens, texte établi, traduit et commenté, Paris, 2017.

Éditeur : Les Belles Lettres
Collection : Collection des Universités de France
443 pages
ISBN : 978-2-251-00618-5
45 €

La Constitution des Athéniens est un pamphlet contre la démocratie athénienne, rédigé à la fin du Ve siècle av. J.-C., à l'époque où Périclès faisait au contraire l'éloge de ce régime. Longtemps attribuée à tort à Xénophon, elle est due à un Athénien anonyme de la classe supérieure, partisan d'un régime oligarchique, que les modernes surnomment parfois « le vieil oligarque ». L'auteur dénonce la démocratie comme un régime injuste, dont les victimes sont les riches, les bien nés, ceux qu'il appelle « les honnêtes gens » et qui sont les mieux qualifiés pour gouverner, tandis que les « fripons », les pauvres, la masse profitent d'un système qui vise à leur seul profit. L'opuscule détaille les spécificités du régime et ses conséquences pour les uns et les autres. Il présente la démocratie athénienne comme un régime immoral, mais très cohérent. Considéré par les historiens actuels comme une œuvre majeure, il est une mine d'informations sur la démocratie athénienne, son fonctionnement et les attaques dont elle a fait l'objet.

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R. Burns, Origins of the Colonnaded Streets in the Cities of the Roman East

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Ross Burns, Origins of the Colonnaded Streets in the Cities of the Roman East, Oxford-New York, 2017.

Éditeur : Oxford University Press
432 pages
ISBN : 9780198784548
100 £


The colonnaded axes define the visitor's experience of many of the great cities of the Roman East. How did this extraordinarily bold tool of urban planning evolve? The street, instead of remaining a mundane passage, a convenient means of passing from one place to another, was in the course of little more than a century transformed in the Eastern provinces into a monumental landscape which could in one sweeping vision encompass the entire city.
The colonnaded axes became the touchstone by which cities competed for status in the Eastern Empire. Though adopted as a sign of cities' prosperity under the Pax Romana, they were not particularly 'Roman' in their origin. Rather, they reflected the inventiveness, fertility of ideas and the dynamic role of civic patronage in the Eastern provinces in the first two centuries under Rome.
This study will concentrate on the convergence of ideas behind these great avenues, examining over fifty sites in an attempt to work out the sequence in which ideas developed across a variety of regions-from North Africa around to Asia Minor. It will look at the phenomenon in the context of the consolidation of Roman rule.

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J. C. Martín-Iglesias, Escritos medievales en honor del obispo Isidoro de Sevilla

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Jose Carlos Martín-Iglesias (éd.), Escritos medievales en honor del obispo Isidoro de Sevilla, Turnhout, 2017.

Éditeur : Brepols
Collection : Corpus Christianorum in Translation (CCT 29)
359 pages
ISBN : 978-2-503-57609-1
60 €

Ce volume comporte la traduction de plusieurs oeuvres hagiographiques, homilétiques et liturgiques d'origine hispanique rédigées entre le VIIe et le XVe siècle en l'honneur de saint Isidore de Séville.

Isidoro de Sevilla es el escritor más destacado de la Hispania visigoda. Aunque es conocido, sobre todo, como autor de la enciclopedia de las Etymologiae, se interesó igualmente por la exégesis bíblica, la historia, la biografía, la astronomía y la geografía, la liturgia, la teología, la espiritualidad, las herejías, la numerología y el monacato. A su muerte, dejó fama de hombre sabio y santo. En consecuencia, a lo largo de la Edad Media se compusieron numerosas obras en su honor en Hispania. Este volumen recoge la traducción de la mayor parte de esos escritos, desde los más antiguos, fechados en el año 636, hasta varias piezas litúrgicas del s. XV. Las primeras composiciones surgieron en Sevilla y Zaragoza, pero, después del traslado de los restos de Isidoro a León en 1063, su culto conoció un gran desarrollo en esta ciudad y los canónigos del monasterio de San Isidoro de León quisieron exaltar la memoria del santo consagrando varias obras a su figura. A continuación, en la segunda mitad del s. XIII, otra relevante leyenda hagiográfica sobre Isidoro de Sevilla y sus hermanos fue compuesta en Zaragoza. Se conservan, además, algunos pequeños escritos litúrgicos redactados entre los siglos XIII y XV.

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